Need a water filter? Peel a tree branch

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If you’ve run out of drinking water during a lakeside camping trip, there’s a simple solution: Break off a branch from the nearest pine tree, peel away the bark, and slowly pour lake water through the stick. The improvised filter should trap any bacteria, producing fresh, uncontaminated water.

In fact, an MIT team has discovered that this low-tech filtration system can produce up to four liters of drinking water a day — enough to quench the thirst of a typical person.

In a paper published this week in the journal PLoS ONE, the researchers demonstrate that a small piece of sapwood can filter out more than 99 percent of the bacteria E. coli from water. They say the size of the pores in sapwood — which contains xylem tissue evolved to transport sap up the length of a tree — also allows water through while blocking most types of bacteria.

Co-author Rohit Karnik, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT, says sapwood is a promising, low-cost, and efficient material for water filtration, particularly for rural communities where more advanced filtration systems are not readily accessible.

“Today’s filtration membranes have nanoscale pores that are not something you can manufacture in a garage very easily,” Karnik says. “The idea here is that we don’t need to fabricate a membrane, because it’s easily available. You can just take a piece of wood and make a filter out of it.”

The paper’s co-authors include Michael Boutilier and Jongho Lee from MIT, Valerie Chambers from Fletcher-Maynard Academy in Cambridge, Mass., and Varsha Venkatesh from Jericho High School in Jericho, N.Y.

Tapping the flow of sap

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There are a number of water-purification technologies on the market today, although many come with drawbacks: Systems that rely on chlorine treatment work well at large scales, but are expensive. Boiling water to remove contaminants requires a great deal of fuel to heat the water. Membrane-based filters, while able to remove microbes, are expensive, require a pump, and can become easily clogged.

Sapwood may offer a low-cost, small-scale alternative. The wood is comprised of xylem, porous tissue that conducts sap from a tree’s roots to its crown through a system of vessels and pores. Each vessel wall is pockmarked with tiny pores called pit membranes, through which sap can essentially hopscotch, flowing from one vessel to another as it feeds structures along a tree’s length. The pores also limit cavitation, a process by which air bubbles can grow and spread in xylem, eventually killing a tree. The xylem’s tiny pores can trap bubbles, preventing them from spreading in the wood.

“Plants have had to figure out how to filter out bubbles but allow easy flow of sap,” Karnik observes. “It’s the same problem with water filtration where we want to filter out microbes but maintain a high flow rate. So it’s a nice coincidence that the problems are similar.”

Seeing red

To study sapwood’s water-filtering potential, the researchers collected branches of white pine and stripped off the outer bark. They cut small sections of sapwood measuring about an inch long and half an inch wide, and mounted each in plastic tubing, sealed with epoxy and secured with clamps.

Before experimenting with contaminated water, the group used water mixed with red ink particles ranging from 70 to 500 nanometers in size. After all the liquid passed through, the researchers sliced the sapwood in half lengthwise, and observed that much of the red dye was contained within the very top layers of the wood, while the filtrate, or filtered water, was clear. This experiment showed that sapwood is naturally able to filter out particles bigger than about 70 nanometers.

However, in another experiment, the team found that sapwood was unable to separate out 20-nanometer particles from water, suggesting that there is a limit to the size of particles coniferous sapwood can filter.

Picking the right plant

Finally, the team flowed inactivated, E. coli-contaminated water through the wood filter. When they examined the xylem under a fluorescent microscope, they saw that bacteria had accumulated around pit membranes in the first few millimeters of the wood. Counting the bacterial cells in the filtered water, the researchers found that the sapwood was able to filter out more than 99 percent of E. coli from water.

Karnik says sapwood likely can filter most types of bacteria, the smallest of which measure about 200 nanometers. However, the filter probably cannot trap most viruses, which are much smaller in size.

Karnik says his group now plans to evaluate the filtering potential of other types of sapwood. In general, flowering trees have smaller pores than coniferous trees, suggesting that they may be able to filter out even smaller particles. However, vessels in flowering trees tend to be much longer, which may be less practical for designing a compact water filter.

Designers interested in using sapwood as a filtering material will also have to find ways to keep the wood damp, or to dry it while retaining the xylem function. In other experiments with dried sapwood, Karnik found that water either did not flow through well, or flowed through cracks, but did not filter out contaminants.

“There’s huge variation between plants,” Karnik says. “There could be much better plants out there that are suitable for this process. Ideally, a filter would be a thin slice of wood you could use for a few days, then throw it away and replace at almost no cost. It’s orders of magnitude cheaper than the high-end membranes on the market today.”

While the pores in sapwood are too big to filter out salts, Saurya Prakash, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Ohio State University, says the design could be useful in parts of the world where people collect surface water, which can be polluted with fine dust and particles of decaying plant and animal matter. Most of this detritus, Prakash says, could easily be filtered out by the group’s design.

“The xylem tissue acts as a natural filter, similar to a manmade membrane,” says Prakash, who was not involved in the research. “The study by the Karnik group shows that use of abundant, naturally occurring materials could pave the way for a new generation of water filters that are potentially low-cost enough to be disposable.”

This research was supported by the James H. Ferry Jr. Fund for Innovation in Research Education.

 

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Credits:

MIT For the article

Graphics/Images: MIT & Plos

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How much should you spend on a water filter?

A few days ago the customer had a great insight for me while discussing different filter prices

Our body is made out of about 70% water !

So how much do you spend 70% of your body?

If you were me would probably be as shocked to how little you spend of your monthly budget on 70% of your body!

A simple calculation shows that even our most expensive filter The Ultimate Pure ‘N Clear with extras, cost you just about $0.57 a day

That is probably much less than what you spend on being connected to the Internet what’s with all fairness is not a true necessity.
To summarize I believe it’s worth it to spend a few bucks on 70% of your body just in case ….

Yours

Yehuda

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The Best RO filters in the world

Here’s a snapshot of the best reverse osmosis filters in the word just off the production line

Best reverse osmosis filters

snapshot of the best reverse osmosis filters in the word just off the production line

Which one is your’s ?

Cell new to buy the best filter in the word 732-942-9430

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A technicians view

Hay all
Over the next few weeks I’ll be sharing with you An Inside Look of Aqua Filter Plus

as well as customer stories, tips on how to replace and maintain your filter and efficiently

If you would like to hear about a specific topic Drop a comment below

Yours

Yehuda

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Tap Water: Microbe Controlling Additives

When drinking water is brought through a treatment plant, disinfectant additives like chloramines, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide are often added. These additives are used in order to protect your drinking water from disease causing organisms that may be present before treatment. But the question is, what can these additives do to your health and body when they are present in the water we drink or bathe in?

  • Chloramines are formed when ammonia is added to chlorine and it is most commonly used to provide further treatment of water as it travels through pipes and into your home. This disinfectant has been used for water treatment for approximately 90 years. Chloramine can cause respiratory problems such as asthma and lung damage; skin problems like dry skin, rashes, burning sensations, chapping, welting, and blistering; burning and dryness of the eyes; digestive issues and gastric cancer; and kidney and blood disorders. 
  • Chlorine is not only used for water treatment but has also been used to make pesticides and solvents. It has been used for more than 100 years to “purify” our drinking water. Chlorine can cause some of the following health problems: digestive issues, eye and throat irritation, risk of miscarriage, asthma, liver problems, drying of skin, kidney problems, and weakened immune system.
  • Chlorine dioxide is used to not only control microbes, but has also been known to control tastes and odors. It has been stated that when water treated with chlorine dioxide is ingested by some infants, young children, and fetuses of pregnant women it can cause nervous system effects. Other health issues can include skin and eye irritation, muscle weakness, lung damage, and cell changes.

Take a moment to consider the possibilities of what you’re currently ingesting or putting on your body by drinking tap water and bathing in it daily. It’s hard to imagine that water, which we consider to be so great for our health, can actually be harming our bodies due to the chemicals used to treat it. The only way to remove these harmful chemicals is to use a strong filtration system either for your drinking water or for your entire home. How many different chemicals are you ingesting with each glass?

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Buying Guide: Whole House Water Filter

Perfect for homes, offices and even farms, the Aqua Filter Plus whole house water filter has the ability to handle all your clean water needs. With a heavy-duty multi-stage filtration system pure and clean water will be available to you throughout every faucet of your entire house, from the kitchen to the bath.

Chlorine and other chemicals that leave traces even after water has been cleaned by municipal facilities. These chemicals are not only harmful to your health by ingesting them in your drinking water, but they can also be damaging to your skin and hair. Using water that has been fully cleaned by Aqua Filter Plus’s whole house water filter assures you that all the water entering your home is clean and crystal clear. After just one shower you’ll notice your hair and skin is softer and smoother than ever before. Say goodbye to itchy skin as well as the unpleasant chemical smell often associated with tap water.

Ready for a water filtration system that will give you the best tasting, cleanest water available? The Aqua Filter Plus whole house system is easy to install and use. Replacing cartridges couldn’t be an easier using the provided wrench to screw off the housing and installing the new filter.

Not sure which model will work best for you? Two models are available. The WW20CS model is perfect for locations with 1-4 occupants. If you’re location has 4-8 occupants, model DPWW20CS is for you. Worried about the cost of home filtration? The whole house filtration system comes at a low price and offers replacement filters that often only need to be replaced approximately once per year.

Find out more about the best system that will suit your needs by visiting Aqua Filter Plus online or contact them by phone at 732-942-9430. All Aqua Filter Plus products can be purchased through your local dealer, at Amazon.com, or directly from us. There’s no better time than no to make sure your home or business is getting the cleanest water possible every day, every time.

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Aqua Filter Plus Customers: What They Think

There’s no better way to learn about a product than by hearing how others feel about it. It’s easy for us to tell you all the wonderful things about Aqua Filter Plus’s products. But we’d like you to see what our customers have had to say:

  • “The best investment I put into my house was your water filter! I don’t bother buying bottled water, because your water tastes so much better!” 
  • “My kids love the water. It’s delicious! I would recommend it to anyone.” 
  • “Before installing your filter I thought that no filter could beat the good taste of a certain spring water company. After tasting the water from your filter, I changed my mind. Your water beats it!” 
  • “My wife is very sensitive to tap water. She immediately gets allergic reactions from any slight impurity in the water. We tried many brands and your water filter is definitely superior!” 
  • “Everyone here at the office loves the fact that there are no bottles to change, and they all say that the water definitely tastes better than the water bottles we had until now.” 
  • “We are enjoying your system so much! The water tastes delicious, and we were able to get rid of our water bottle deliveries which was a pain in the neck. Thank you so much for your great service!” 
  • “The water from your filter is great. Ever since we installed your system I can’t drink any other water – even bottled water. We even connected our ice maker and hot water dispenser to the filter, to ensure that all of our water is pure with Aqua Filter Plus!”

Isn’t it time for you to join our list of satisfied, happy customers? Don’t allow ordinary, unclean tap water flow through your faucets any longer, endangering the health of you and your family. Contact Aqua Filter Plus today to learn about which filter will best suit your every day needs.

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Buying Guide: Pure ‘n Clear

The Aqua Filter Plus Pure ‘n Clear (AFP210 Series) system uses a water filter systemheavy-duty multi stage filtration process to assure you get sparkling pure water from your tap. With this industrial strength filter you’ll not only enjoy knowing your water is void of harmful contaminants but it will also improve both the taste and smell. The system even exceeds an NSF Standard for chlorine/taste and odor reduction. You’ll never enjoy a crystal clear glass of water more than with the Pure ‘n Clear system!

Two pure carbon cartridges remove all the harmful elements – such as chlorine and pesticides – that may be present in your tap water while leaving the beneficial minerals and fluoride that water provides your body. The pre-filter cartridge reduces sediments and particles down to 5 micron and Granular Activated carbon then purifies the water even further. Compressed into a compact block, the carbon filter allows for evenly distributed water flow so that ever drop of water is thoroughly filtered. The post-filter cartridge takes filtration even farther, reducing finer sediments down to 0.5 microns and reducing the presence of lead using activated carbon bonded with a special agent. This four stage process ensures your drinking water will be as clean and clear as possible when it reaches your glass. And the double tank filter has been designed with the consumer in mind, lasting longer than other carbon filter models. This means you’ll have far fewer cartridge replacements, approximately once a year.

The Pure ‘n Clear system is available in both an under the sink model and a counter-top model to allow you to choose which best will suit your situation. Both versions of the system come with complete installation kits and easy to follow instructions. And with tough polypropylene housing and brass fittings you can be sure the system will last you for years to come.

Proudly made in the USA, the Aqua Filter Plus Pure ‘n Clear filtration system can be found through your local Aqua Filter Plus dealer, on Amazon.com, or directly from the Aqua Filter Plus website. Don’t miss your chance to taste and enjoy the cleanest water that will ever come out of your tap.

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Water and You: Healthier Skin

We know water is healthy for all of us, but did you know that drinking plenty of water each day can make your skin look and feel healthier too? So just what can water do to help our skin?

  • Like all other parts of your body, your skin is an organ. The cells that make up your skin are made of water, which means drinking plenty of fluids allows the cells to remain hydrated and function properly. 
  • Lack of hydration will quickly appear right before your eyes. If you’re not drinking enough water each day your skin will soon become dry, tight and flaky. And dry skin is of course one of the leading factors for wrinkles that we all try so hard to avoid.
  • Water assists in the flushing out of harmful toxins from the body. When not properly hydrated our cells, like those in our skin, have difficulty removing the toxins. These toxins can then build up in the skin pores which can contribute to acne.
  • As summer quickly approaches, some amount of sunburn is almost inevitable. But if your skin gets burnt after a day of fun outdoors, water can help. Sunburn can cause dehydration, so drinking plenty of water can help your body heal itself from the sun damage.

As our bodies lose water each day from thinks like sweating, it’s important to replace it  as often as possible. Drinking at least eight glasses of water each day is the most widely known recommendation. And making sure the water you drink is the most pure possible ensures that you’re not putting harmful chemicals or microorganisms into your body that can do even more harm. And don’t forget, these particles can also damage and dry your skin when average tap water is used for showering. Check out all the filter options available through Aqua Filter Plus that will suit your needs and assure you that all the water you use is pure and clean.

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Tap Water and Your Food

Purchasing a filter just for your drinking water may be a step in the right direction, but it doesn’t completely rectify the problem of ingesting contaminants from tap water. Consider the processes that you use water for when preparing meals for your family. If you’re using tap water for meal preparations, you and your family are still being exposed to the particles you’ve been trying to steer clear of. Consider the following:

  •  Rinsing fruits and vegetables. If you’re not using filtered water, the contaminants in your tap water are being left on the fruits and vegetables you’re feeding your family that are meant to be wholly healthy for them. 
  • Boiling water. Whether it’s water being used to cook pasta or rice, used to cook packaged foods like soups or boxed meals, or to make your own homemade soups, boiling of tap water isn’t fully the answer. The truth is, when tap water is boiled you may be killing the bacteria or viruses present, but other contaminants like lead and arsenic become more concentrated.

Truth be told, no matter how you use water when cooking, you’re still exposing your family to the contaminants that may be present. The safest way to safe guard your family from ingesting things like harmful microorganisms, disinfection byproducts, water additives, inorganic chemicals and radionuclides that can be present in tap water is to make sure all the water you use in your home is filtered. Just using a filtration system solely for the water you directly drink isn’t enough. The water you use when cooking, whether it be for making a pot of homemade soup, a cup of tea, or for rinsing your freshly picked tomatoes, should always come from a filter as well.

Aqua Filter Plus gives you many choices for water filtration. The Drinking Water Filter is great for your kitchen faucet, just be sure to use it for the food you prepare and not just what you’re pouring into your glass. The Whole House Filtration System takes filtration a step farther by filtering all the water coming into your home, whether it be the kitchen sink or the shower. With this system you’ll not only have clean water for drinking and cooking, but also for bathing, washing your hands and brushing your teeth. There’s nothing better than assuring that the water your family is ingesting is the most pure and clean. Take away your fears of contaminated tap water and contact Aqua Filter Plus today!

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